Thursday, January 23, 2020

Media and Society Essay -- Papers

Media and Society Does society influence media or does media influence society? In a modern world, dependent on continuous communication this is a very important question. If the world were not dependent on communication over large distances, schooling on a mass basis would not be possible or necessary. Most knowledge in traditional cultures was local knowledge, (Geertz 1983) traditions that were passed on through a local community, a very slow and long drawn out process. Today we live in the "Whole World" in a way that would have been inconceivable to anyone who lived before the 19th century. [IMAGE] "We are now aware of news and situations thousands of miles away, all due to e-communications making such awareness almost instantaneous in the 21st Century. Rapid transfers and e-communications have greatly intensified global diffusion of information." (Anthony Giddens Sociology 1995) [IMAGE] Society today loves stories produced by mass media; sudden death, scandal, and happy endings enter our ...

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Dicken’s Hard Times Essay

â€Å"Now, what I want is, Facts. Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts. Facts alone are wanted in life.† (Dickens, 1854, p.1) With these beginning sentences of the novel â€Å"Hard Times†, Charles Dickens has made readers doubt whether it is true that facts alone are wanted in life. This question leads to the main theme of the story, fact against fancy, that author has never been written this kind of plot in his other stories before. In fact, Hard Times is considered as â€Å"the unlike-the-rest of Dickens’ works† (Collins, 1992, p.xi) because the plot is not involved the social problems in Victorian Age such as poverty or child labor, but it is â€Å"an abstract that exalts instinct above reason.† (Collins, 1992, p.xiii) Although it is not Dickensian, author still put his cliff-hanger characteristic on his work which makes the story enjoyable and worth reading for all-age-readers. Due to many interesting factors, this novel has been chosen to be the topic of this essay consisting of three parts that are the historical backgrounds, the facts about this novel and my critical refle ctions. To gain the comprehensive perspective of the story, we need to look back on historical backgrounds of the age that this novel took place which can be seen in three ways that are the economy, the social class and the education. Victorian Age is the period of economic progress that Industrial Revolution played important part in the British society. As a result, there were many factories located in town and it is imaginary described in a story that industrial Coketown is â€Å"where the piston of the steam-engine worked monotonously up and down, like the head of an elephant in a state of melancholy madness.† (Dickens, 1854, p.20). So, it shows that Hard Times is â€Å"a realistic novel that author voiced a radically dissident attitude on Industrial Revolution in his story.† (Lowy 2007 218) According to the growth of economy, there was the distinction found in social classes especially between labor and management (Cliffnote, n.d.) in this story that can be seen at Mr. Boun derby, a wealthy manufacturer, considers himself as self-made man and later found that he is not, who is in upper class and has predominant power over Blackpool – a hard working labor in Mr. Bounderby’s factory. However, the social class distinction is not raised as a serious problem in the story. Also, this economic progress has a great impact on the education system in which the schools are dominated with the Utilitarian spirit. From the plot, it shows that Dickens held a strong vision against the Utilitarianism, a theory that considers self-interest is maximum utility and denies on imagination (Diniejko, n.d.), that he ends the story with the tragic event caused by failure of the Utilitarian education system that teaches students only fact, but he oppositely admired hospitality of the Sleary’s circus that teaches the children with imagination. These are historical backgrounds that influenced the story and make it more understandable. As it is claimed at first that this novel is not like the other Dickens’ stories, it is contained some facts that makes the novel interesting which are its background, cliff-hanger plot and impressive critiques. Unlike Dickens’ â€Å"usual shilling monthly numbers, Hard Times was a part in his two penny weekly edited magazine† (Collin, 1992, p.xi), Household Words, which â€Å"faced a shrinking circulation and falling profits† (Enote editor, n.d.). Therefore, the story was written in form of â€Å"serialization and finally titled Hard Times For These Times when it was gathered into fuller version.† (Collin, 1992, p.xi) Although it is not a notably work, it has a Dickens’ famous cliff-hanger plot. The main theme is the conflict between fact and fancy in which Mr. Gradgrind teaches his students and his children to believe in fact, but the story turns out unexpected that two of his children have to live in misery; Louisa has a loveless marriage with Mr. Bounderby – a friend of her father and a bank owner. Tom, Louisa’s brother, becomes a bank robber who almost cannot escape abroad. In order to help his son, Mr. Gradgrind eventually has to ask Sleary’s circus, who he never favour because they teaches children with imagination, for help and he comes to realize that his philosophy he has been teaching all along for his children is a failure. The story also contains many subplot stories such as an impossible love between Louisa and Mr. Harthouse, a secret life of Mr. Bounderby and a social class love. With his sharp and sarcastic writing skill, Hard Times receives impressive critiques from many admirers. The outstanding critique is one from Dr F. R. Leavis in 1948 that saysâ€Å"†¦ of all Dickens’ works the one that has all the strength of his genius, together with a strength no other of them can show—that of a completely serious work of art†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Collin, 1992, p.xii). These three facts of this novel even make it more astonishing. A good novel not only gives reader an appreciation but also provides some points that need to be analyzed through critical thinking process. So does the Hard Times, it is a valuable novel that I favor and have critical reflections on the Dickens’ satire, the well-rounded characters and the comparison on the different abstract ideas. I was hooked by this novel right from the first three sentences, claimed at the beginning of the essay, because it provokes readers’ brain to think until we find the answer that it is wrong to lean on facts alone in life and that is the first satire in a story. There is the using of repeated word to sarcastically equate the teacher and Mr. Gradgrind with the mechanic engine as shown â€Å"Fact, fact, fact!’ said the gentleman. And ‘Fact, fact, fact!’ repeated Thomas Gradgrind† (Dickens, 1854, p.6). Moreover, all the well-rounded characters are formed in satirist way. For example, there is the difference between Lou isa and Sissy which we see the development of these two characters. The first is Louisa who was born and raised in a wealthy family teaching her only facts are wanted in life, but she ends up living in mournful as it says â€Å"†¦any hoarded scrap of which, is a blessing and happiness to the wisest? Did Louisa see this? Such a thing was never to be.† (Dickens, 1854, p.283). On the other hand, the second is Sissy, was born in circus and taught her with imagination, who ends up living with happiness as it says â€Å"trying hard to know her humbler fellow-creatures, and to beautify their lives of machinery and reality with those imaginative graces and delights† (Dickens, 1854, p.283). Lastly, I am very appreciated with the comparison on the different abstract ideas especially one in this example; the different perspectives of horse that the student in Mr. Gradgrind’s school describes in scientific and arithmetic way as shown: â€Å"Quadruped. Graminivorous. Forty teeth, namely twenty-four grinders, four eye teeth, and twelve incisive†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Dickens, 1854, p.4), while the Sleary’s circus people describe it as beautiful imaginary way as shown: â€Å"The public house was the Pegasus’s Arms. The Pegasus’s legs might have been more to the purpose†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Dickens, 1854, p.25). It can be interpreted that students see no abstract from object, they have blunted mind, while circus people, who live in Victorian Era – the golden age of circus, have something that students do not have which are morality and hospitality. These are my critical reflections that makes Hard Times become one of my favorite novels. All of these are the historical backgrounds, the facts about this novel and my critical reflections for the Dickens’ Hard Times. It is a story of wrong philosophy that facts which are actually not the only needful thing in life. This novel gives readers the way to approach history of Victorian A ge, also, an appreciation. And the most importantly, it persuades readers to live their lives happily with imagination and hospitality to everyone that will come into life. References Collins, Philip (1992). Introduction. Charles Dickens Hard Times(p. xi,xii,xiii). Berwick Street, London: The Millennium Library. Dickens, Charles (1854). Hard Times For These Times. Charles Dickens Hard Times(p. 1,4,6,20,25,283). Berwick Street, London: The Millennium Library. Diniejko, Dr Andrzej.Charles Dickens as Social Commentator and Critic. The Victorian Web: An Overview. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from Hard Times Critical Essay by Charles Dickens. Study Guides, Lesson Plans, Homework Help, Answers & More – Retrieved January 10, 2013, from Hard Times: Critical Essays: Dickens’ Philosophy and Style – CliffsNotes . Get Homework Help with CliffsNotes Study Guides . Retrieved January 10, 2013, from philosophy-style.html Lowy, M. (2007). The Current of Critical Irrealism. A concise companion to realism(p. 218). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Finance Test with Answers - 1054 Words

Test 1 Question 1 0 out of 1 points Which of the following securities will likely have the highest liquidity premium? Answer Selected Answer: a. U.S. Treasury Bond maturing in 2027 Correct Answer: c. Aaa-rated corporate bond maturing in 2015 not actively traded Question 2 0 out of 2 points The curse of competitive markets Answer Selected Answer: a. Means that companies cannot earn exceptional profits. Correct Answer: c. May be lessened by obtaining patents for new ideas that protect companies from competitors. Question 3 2 out of 2 points Two assets, A and B, have the same expected return (10%) and the same level of risk (average). Which of the following†¦show more content†¦sole proprietorship. Correct Answer: d. sole proprietorship and general partnership. Question 20 0 out of 1 points Project A is expected to generate positive cash flow of $1 million in 10 years while Project B is expected to generate $500,000 in 5 years. Therefore, Answer Selected Answer: b. Project B is preferred because its cash flow is expected to be received sooner than the cash flow from Project A. Correct Answer: d. Project B may be preferred to Project A if the opportunity cost of money is high enough. Question 21 3 out of 3 points A 65 year-old man is retiring and can take either $50,000 in cash or an ordinary annuity that promises to pay him $6,000 per year for as long as he lives. Which of the following statements is most correct? Answer Selected Answer: d. If the interest rate is 15% per year, the man will be better off taking the $50,000 up front. Correct Answer: d. If the interest rate is 15% per year, the man will be better off taking the $50,000 up front. Question 22 1 out of 1 points Shareholder wealth maximization means: Answer Selected Answer: c. maximizing the price of existing common stock. Correct Answer: c. maximizing the price of existing common stock. 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Monday, December 30, 2019

The Influence Of Multitasking On Different Media Devices...

We can watch TV and look through social media news feeds on laptops while reading texts on smartphones. With all the multitasking it could be shrinking the structure of our brains. According to new research from the University of Sussex, people who use cell phones or other devices tend to have a less gray-matter density in parts of the brain versus teens who use one or more devices at a time. â€Å"Published in the journal PLOS One, the research is the first to reveal links between multitasking on different media devices and brain structure† (Keating). Media multitasking is becoming more prevalent in our lives today and there is increasing concern about its impacts on our cognition and social-emotional well-being, says Sussex neuroscientist Kep Kee Loh (Keating)†. The researchers asked 75 healthy men and women how often they divided their attention between different social media devices, which included sending a text or listing to music while doing other stuff. â€Å"Th e participants were given brain scans, which showed that, compared with people who used one device at a time, this group had a less dense gray matter in the cortex which is the part of the brain that is involved in processing emotion† (Keating). Researches aren t sure whether people with less gray brain structures are more likely to be good at multitasking or if the multitasking causes the gray structures to shrink. Other studies found that learning how to juggle and learning map routes increased the gray area inShow MoreRelatedTest Bank for Excellence in Business Communication 10th Edition by Thill12272 Words   |  50 Pageswriting messages. D) speaking to others. E) none of the above. 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Saturday, December 21, 2019

Essay on Contributions of Diversity to the Workplace

Contributions of Diversity to the Workplace Diverse employees bring a wealth of creativity, insights, and skills to their jobs; it is up to employers to recognize, cultivate, and value these contributions (Walton, Sally, 1994). Diversity is about setting a mindset of valuing the differences in people and recognizing the similarities, it is not only about achieving results. Once this way of thinking is established, the benefits of cultural diversity in the workplace tend to come naturally, (Goessl, Leigh 2008). Diversity encompasses race, gender, ethnic group, age, personality, cognitive style, tenure, organizational function, education, background and more, (Greenberg, Josh 2004) With todays business environment moving towards a global†¦show more content†¦These differences are beneficial because it opens up new possibilities which can be experienced in the form of innovation and creativity. The various life experiences and alternate perspective shared with each other often lead to unique new and innovative ideas that can be financially beneficial to the company because they often lead to new products or services. New Solutions: Often businesses experience a level of problems with their task processes or things dont run as smoothly as they could. Through diversity solutions to problems can come forth that may not have emerged if not for the different cultural backgrounds or practices. †¢ Cost-Effective: In an article written by Gail Robinson and Kathleen Dechant in 1997 entitled Building a Business Case for Diversity, it was presented that several organizational studies concluded pursuing diversity in the workplace resulted in less absenteeism, employee turnover costs and a lessened liability in discrimination lawsuits. Companies that have experienced any of these costs know firsthand how expensive they can be. †¢ Appeal to Customer Base: People like to see themselves reflected in the organizations they do business with. It stands to reason that the more culturally diverse a company is, the more diverse the customersShow MoreRelatedDiversity And Inclusion Of An Organization1204 Words   |  5 PagesIn a survey, 24 executives were asked way advancing diversity in their organizations was so important to them. The majority believe â€Å"it was a business imperative because their companies needed it to stay competitive, and they believed it was a moral imperative because of their companies needed of their personal experiences and values† (Broysberg Connolly, 2013). 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Friday, December 13, 2019

Blood Promise Chapter Twenty-Nine Free Essays

string(76) " set out to do, that image of Dimitri falling and falling still haunted me\." The flight was more like thirty hours. Getting from the middle of Siberia to the middle of Montana wasn’t easy. I flew from Novosibirsk to Moscow to Amsterdam to Seattle to Missoula. We will write a custom essay sample on Blood Promise Chapter Twenty-Nine or any similar topic only for you Order Now Four different flights. Five different airports. A lot of running around. It was exhausting, yet when I handed over my passport to get back into the U.S. in Seattle, I felt a strange surge of emotion in me†¦ joy and relief. Before leaving Russia, I had thought Abe might come back with me and finish his task himself, hand-delivering me to whomever had hired him. â€Å"You really are going back now, aren’t you?† he asked at the airport. â€Å"To the school? You aren’t going to get off at one of your stops and disappear?† I smiled. â€Å"No. I’m going back to St. Vladimir’s.† â€Å"And you’ll stay there?† he pressed. He didn’t quite look as dangerous as he had in Baia, but I could see a glint of hardness in his eyes. My smile slipped. â€Å"I don’t know what’s going to happen. I don’t have a place there anymore.† â€Å"Rose-â€Å" I held up a hand to stop him, surprised at my own determination. â€Å"Enough. No after-school specials. You said you were hired to get me back there. It isn’t your job to say what I do after that.† At least, I hoped not. Whoever wanted me back had to be someone at the Academy. I’d be there soon. They had won. Abe’s services were no longer required. Despite his victory, he didn’t look happy about relinquishing me. Glancing up at one of the departure boards, he sighed. â€Å"You need to go through security, or you’ll miss your flight.† I nodded. â€Å"Thanks for†¦Ã¢â‚¬  What exactly? His help? â€Å"†¦ For everything.† I started to turn away, but he touched my shoulder. â€Å"Is that all you’re wearing?† Most of my clothing had been scattered around Russia. One of the other Alchemists had located shoes, jeans, and a sweater, but otherwise, I was winging it until I got back to the U.S. â€Å"I don’t really need anything else,† I told him. Abe arched an eyebrow. Turning to one of his guardians, he made a small gesture toward me. Immediately, the guardian took off his coat and handed it over. The guy was lanky, but the coat was still too big for me. â€Å"No, I don’t need-â€Å" â€Å"Take it,† ordered Abe. I took it, and then to my further shock, Abe began unwinding the scarf from around his neck. It was one of his nicer ones, too: cashmere, woven with an array of brilliant colors, more suited to the Caribbean than here or Montana. I started to protest this as well, but the look on his face silenced me. I put the scarf around my neck and thanked him, wondering if I’d ever see him again. I didn’t bother asking because I had a feeling he wouldn’t tell me anyway. When I finally landed in Missoula thirty hours later, I was pretty sure I didn’t want to fly in a plane anytime soon-as in, like, the next five years. Maybe ten. Without any luggage, getting out of the airport was easy. Abe had sent word ahead of my arrival, but I had no idea who they’d send to get me. Alberta, who ran the guardians at St. Vladimir’s, seemed a likely choice. Or maybe it would be my mother. I never knew where she was at any given moment, and suddenly, I really, really wanted to see her. She would be a logical choice too. So it was with some surprise that I saw that the person waiting for me at the airport’s exit was Adrian. A grin spread over my face, and I picked up the pace. I threw my arms around him, astonishing both of us. â€Å"I have never been happier to see you in my life,† I said. He squeezed me tightly and then let me go, regarding me admiringly. â€Å"The dreams never do justice to real life, little dhampir. You look amazing.† I’d cleaned up after the ordeal with the Strigoi, and Oksana had continued healing me in spite of my protests-even the bruises on my neck, which she had never asked about. I didn’t want anyone else to know about those. â€Å"And you look†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I studied him. He was dressed as nicely as always, with a three-quarter-length wool coat and green scarf that matched his eyes. His dark brown hair had that crafted messiness he liked, but his face-ah, well. As I’d noted before, Simon had gotten a few good punches on him. One of Adrian’s eyes was swollen and ringed with bruises. Nonetheless, thinking about him and everything he’d done†¦ well, none of the flaws mattered. â€Å"†¦ Gorgeous.† â€Å"Liar,† he said. â€Å"Couldn’t Lissa have healed that black eye away?† â€Å"It’s a badge of honor. Makes me seem manly. Come on, your carriage awaits.† â€Å"Why’d they send you?† I asked as we walked toward the parking lot. â€Å"You are sober, aren’t you?† Adrian didn’t dignify that with an answer. â€Å"Well, the school has no official responsibility to you, seeing as you’re a dropout and everything. So they weren’t really obligated to come get you. None of your other friends can leave campus†¦ but me? I’m just a free spirit, hanging out. So I borrowed a car, and here I am.† His words sparked mixed reactions in me. I was touched that he’d taken the trouble to come out here but was bothered by the part about the school having no responsibility to me. Throughout all my travels, I’d gone back and forth in thinking of St. Vladimir’s as home†¦ yet, in the most technical terms, it truly wasn’t anymore. I would just be a visitor. As we settled into the drive, Adrian caught me up on the aftermath at the school. After the big psychic showdown, I hadn’t delved much into Lissa’s mind. Oksana had healed my body, but mentally, I was still exhausted and grieving. Even though I’d accomplished what I set out to do, that image of Dimitri falling and falling still haunted me. You read "Blood Promise Chapter Twenty-Nine" in category "Essay examples" â€Å"It turns out you were right about Avery bonding Simon and Reed,† Adrian said. â€Å"From what information we could gather, it sounds like Simon was killed in a fight that Avery witnessed years ago. Everyone thought it was a miracle he survived, not actually realizing the truth.† â€Å"She kept her powers hidden like the rest of you,† I mused. â€Å"And then Reed died later?† â€Å"Well, that’s the weird thing,† said Adrian, frowning. â€Å"No one can really tell when he died. I mean, he’s royal. He’s been pampered his whole life, right? But based on what we could get out of him-which wasn’t much, since they’re all pretty messed up now-it sounds like Avery may have intentionally killed him and then brought him back.† â€Å"Just like with Lissa,† I said, recalling Simon’s words during the fight. â€Å"Avery wanted to kill her, bring her back, and bond her. But why Lissa of all people?† â€Å"My guess? Because she’s a spirit user. Now that spirit’s not a secret anymore, it was only a matter of time before Avery heard about Lissa and me. I think Avery thought bonding Lissa would increase her own power. As it was, she was sucking up a lot of energy from those other two.† Adrian shook his head. â€Å"I wasn’t kidding about sensing that spirit all the way across campus. The amounts Avery had to wield to compel so many people, mask her aura, and who knows what else†¦ well, it was staggering.† I stared off at the freeway ahead of us, considering the consequences of Avery’s actions. â€Å"And that’s why Reed was so messed up-why he was so angry and ready for a fight. He and Simon were absorbing all that darkness she was producing by using spirit. Just like I do with Lissa.† â€Å"Yeah, except you were nothing like these guys. It wasn’t so obvious with Simon-he was better at keeping a straight face-but both of them were totally on the edge. And now? They’re over the edge. All three of them are.† I recalled Simon staring at nothing and Avery screaming. I shivered. â€Å"When you say over the edge†¦?† â€Å"I mean totally and completely insane. Those three are going to be institutionalized for the rest of their lives.† â€Å"From what you†¦ we all did?† I asked, aghast. â€Å"Partly,† he agreed. â€Å"Avery was throwing all that power at us, and when we threw it back and then some†¦ well, I think it was like an overload to their minds. And to be honest, considering how Reed and Simon already were, the stage was probably set for this. With Avery too.† â€Å"Mark was right,† I murmured. â€Å"Who?† â€Å"The other shadow-kissed guy I met. He was talking about how Lissa and I might be able to heal the darkness away from each other someday. It takes a careful balance of power between the spirit user and the shadow-kissed. I still don’t fully get it, but I’m guessing Avery’s little circle of three wouldn’t have been able to handle that kind of balancing act. I don’t think bonding to more than one person is healthy.† â€Å"Huh.† Adrian didn’t say anything for a while and simply pondered all this. Finally, he laughed. â€Å"Man, I can’t believe you found another spirit user and shadow-kissed person. It’s like finding a needle in a haystack, but that kind of thing always happens to you. I can’t wait to hear the rest of what you’ve been doing.† I looked away and rested my cheek against the glass. â€Å"It’s actually not very interesting.† None of the Academy officials knew about my role in the showdown with Avery. So it wasn’t like anyone questioned me when we got back. They were still doing cleanup and asking Adrian and Lissa a lot of questions. Spirit was still such a new phenomenon that no one knew what to think of what had happened. Avery and her bondmates had been taken away for help, and her father had already gone on a temporary leave of absence. Adrian signed me in as his guest, which got me a campus pass. Like all visitors, I was also given a list of where I’d stay and what I could and couldn’t do. I promptly ignored it. â€Å"I have to go,† I told Adrian immediately. He gave me a knowing smile. â€Å"I figured.† â€Å"Thank you†¦ for coming to get me. I’m sorry I’ve got to leave you-â€Å" He waved off my worries. â€Å"You aren’t leaving me. You’re back; that’s what counts. I’ve been patient this long-I can hold out a little longer.† I held his eyes for a moment, startled at the warm feelings that suddenly bubbled up within me. I kept them to myself, though, only giving Adrian a quick smile before I set off across campus. I got a lot of strange looks when I went to Lissa’s dorm. It was right after classes had ended, so student traffic was pretty busy with people rushing in or out to get somewhere. Yet, when I passed by, silence fell and people stopped moving and talking. It reminded me of when Lissa and I had been returned to school after running away. We’d been marched through the cafeteria and had received similar treatment from our peers. Maybe it was just my imagination, but it seemed worse this time. The looks more shocked. The silence heavier. Last time, I think people had believed we’d run off as some sort of prank. This time, no one really knew why I’d left. I’d come out of the school’s attack a hero, only to drop out and disappear. I think some of Lissa’s dorm mates thought they were seeing a ghost. Ignoring the gossip and opinions of others was something I had a lot of practice with, and I sprinted past the onlookers without a backward glance, taking the stairs two at a time. I shut myself off to Lissa’s feelings as I walked down her hall. It seemed silly, but I wanted to be surprised. I just wanted to open my eyes and see her in person, with no warnings as to how she was feeling or what she was thinking. I knocked on the door. Adrian had said seeing me in dreams couldn’t compare to seeing me in person. The same was true with Lissa. Being in her head was nothing like being near her in reality. The door opened, and it was like an apparition materializing before me, some sort of heavenly messenger descended from above. I’d never been away from her for this long, and after all this time, part of me wondered if I was imagining this. Her hand went to her mouth, and she stared at me wide-eyed. I think she felt the same way-and she hadn’t even had warning of my visit. She’d just been told I was coming â€Å"soon.† No doubt I seemed like a phantom to her, too. And with that reunion†¦ it was like I was emerging from a cave-one I’d been in for almost five weeks-into the bright light of day. When Dimitri had turned, I’d felt like I’d lost part of my soul. When I’d left Lissa, another piece had gone. Now, seeing her†¦ I began to think maybe my soul might be able to heal. Maybe I could go on after all. I didn’t feel 100 percent whole yet, but her presence filled up that missing part of me. I felt more like myself than I had in ages. A world of questions and confusion hung in the silence between us. In spite of everything we’d been through with Avery, there was still a lot of unresolved business from when I had first left the school. For the first time since I’d set foot on the Academy’s grounds, I felt afraid. Afraid that Lissa would reject me or scream at me for what I’d done. Instead, she drew me into a giant hug. â€Å"I knew it,† she said. She was already choking on her sobs. â€Å"I knew you’d come back.† â€Å"Of course,† I murmured into her shoulder. â€Å"I said I would.† My best friend. I had my best friend back. If I had her, I could recover from what had happened in Siberia. I could go on with my life. â€Å"I’m sorry,† she said. â€Å"So sorry for what I did.† I pulled away in surprise. Stepping into the room, I shut the door behind us. â€Å"Sorry? What do you have to be sorry for?† Despite my joy at seeing her, I’d come here expecting her to still be angry at me for leaving. None of that mess with Avery would have happened if I’d stayed around. I blamed myself. She sat down on her bed, eyes wet. â€Å"For what I said†¦ when you left. I had no right to say the things I did. I have no right to control you. And I feel horrible because†¦Ã¢â‚¬  She ran a hand over her eyes, trying to dry the worst of the tears. â€Å"I feel horrible because I told you I wouldn’t bring back Dimitri. I mean, I know it didn’t matter, but I should have still offered to-â€Å" â€Å"No, no!† I sank down in front of her and grabbed her hands, still awed to be with her again. â€Å"Look at me. You have nothing to be sorry for. I said things I shouldn’t have, too. It happens when people are upset. Neither of us should beat ourselves up over it. And as for bringing him back†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I sighed. â€Å"You did the right thing in refusing. Even if we had found him before he’d been turned, it wouldn’t have mattered. You can’t safely bond more than one person. That’s what went wrong with Avery.† Well, that was part of what had gone wrong with Avery. Manipulation and abuse of power had played a huge role too. Lissa’s sobs quieted. â€Å"How did you do that, Rose? How were you there at the end when I needed you? How did you know?† â€Å"I was with another spirit user. I met her in Siberia. She can actively reach into people’s minds-anyone’s, not just those she’s bonded to-and communicate. Like Avery could, actually. Oksana reached into me while I connected to you. It’s really strange how it all went down.† To say the least. â€Å"Another power I don’t have,† said Lissa ruefully. I grinned. â€Å"Hey, I have yet to meet any spirit user who can throw a punch like you can. That was poetry in motion, Liss.† She groaned, but I sensed her pleasure at my use of the old nickname. â€Å"I hope I don’t ever have to do that again. I’m not meant to be a fighter, Rose. You’re the one who charges out there. I’m the one who waits with moral support and post-battle healing.† She held up her hands and looked at them. â€Å"Ugh. No. I definitely don’t want to do any more hitting or punching.† â€Å"But at least now you know you can. If you ever want to practice†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"No!† She laughed. â€Å"I’ve got too many things to practice with Adrian now-especially after you keep telling me about more and more things that everyone else can do with spirit.† â€Å"Fine. Maybe it’s best if things go back to how they were.† Her face sobered. â€Å"God, I hope so. Rose†¦ I did so many stupid things while Avery was around.† Through the bond, I felt her greatest regret: Christian. Her heart ached for him, and she’d shed a lot of tears. After having Dimitri ripped away from me, I knew how it felt to lose that kind of love, and I swore to myself that I’d do something to help her. But now wasn’t the time. She and I need to reconnect first. â€Å"You couldn’t help it, though,† I pointed out. â€Å"She was too strong with her compulsion-especially when she got you to drink and killed your defenses.† â€Å"Yeah, but not everyone knows that or will understand it.† â€Å"They’ll forget,† I said. â€Å"They always do.† I understood her angst over her reputation, but I doubted there would be any truly permanent damage-aside from Christian. Adrian and I had analyzed Avery’s manipulation and figured things out once we’d paired it with Simon’s comment about Lissa having an unfortunate accident. Avery had wanted to make Lissa look unstable in the event Avery somehow didn’t have the strength to resurrect her. If Lissa actually died, no one would investigate much. After weeks of crazy, drunken behavior, her losing control and accidentally falling out of a window would be tragic but not completely out of the realm of possibility. â€Å"Spirit’s a pain in the ass,† Lissa declared. â€Å"Everyone wants to take advantage of you-non-users like Victor and users like Avery. I swear, I’d go back on my medication if I wasn’t paranoid now about protecting myself from other Avery-type people. Why’d she want to kill me and not Adrian? Why am I always the target?† I couldn’t help a smile in spite of the grim topic. â€Å"Because she wanted you for a minion and him for a boyfriend. She probably wanted a guy who could help escalate her rise in society and couldn’t risk killing him in a bonding attempt. Or who knows? Maybe she would have eventually tried him, too. I honestly wouldn’t be surprised if she felt threatened by you and wanted to make sure she had the only other known female spirit user under her control. Face it, Liss. We could spend hours trying to figure out how Avery Lazar thinks and get nowhere.† â€Å"True, true.† She slid off the bed and sat next to me on the floor. â€Å"But you know what? I feel like we could talk about anything for hours. You’ve been here ten minutes, and it’s like†¦ well, it’s like you never left.† â€Å"Yeah,† I agreed. Before he was a Strigoi, being with Dimitri had always felt natural and right. Being with Lissa also felt natural and right-though it was a different kind of rightness. In my grief over Dimitri, I’d nearly forgotten what I had with her. They were two sides of me. In that uncanny way she had of guessing thoughts, Lissa said, â€Å"I meant what I said earlier. I’m sorry for what I said-about acting like I have some right to dictate your life. I don’t. If you decide to stay or guard me, you do that by your choice and your kindness. I want to make sure you live and choose your own life.† â€Å"There’s nothing ? ®kind’ about it. I’ve always wanted to protect you. I still do.† I sighed. â€Å"I just†¦ I just had things to take care of. I had to get myself together-and I’m sorry I didn’t handle it with you very well.† There was a lot of apologizing going on, but I realized that was how it was with people you cared about. You forgave each other and moved on. Lissa hesitated before asking her next question, but I’d known it was coming. â€Å"So†¦ what happened? Did you†¦ did you find him†¦?† At first, I didn’t think I wanted to talk about it, but then I realized that I needed to. And the thing was, a few different things had gone wrong with Lissa and me before. One had been that she’d taken me for granted. The other had been that I wouldn’t tell her the truth-and then I’d resent her for it later. If we were going to patch up this friendship and forgive each other, we had to make sure we didn’t repeat the past. â€Å"I did find him,† I said at last. And I launched into the story, telling her everything that had happened to me: my travels, the Belikovs, the Alchemists, Oksana and Mark, the unpromised, and of course, Dimitri. Just as Lissa had joked earlier, we talked for hours. I poured out my heart to her, and she listened without judgment. Her face was compassionate the whole time, and when I reached the end, I was sobbing, all the love and rage and anguish I’d been holding onto since that night on the bridge exploding out of me. I hadn’t told anyone else in Novosibirsk exactly where I’d been during my time with Dimitri. I hadn’t dared tell anyone I’d been a blood whore for a Strigoi. I had stayed vague, hoping if I didn’t talk about it, then maybe it wouldn’t be real. Now, with Lissa, I had to accept the reality of everything and truly feel it: I had killed the man I loved. A knock at the door jolted us out of a world that contained only her and me. I glanced at the clock and was startled to see it was almost curfew time. I wondered if I was being thrown out. But when Lissa opened the door-after I’d hastily dried my eyes-the waiting dorm worker had a message of a different sort. â€Å"Alberta wants to see you,† the woman told me. â€Å"She thought you might be here.† Lissa and I exchanged glances. â€Å"When? Now?† I asked. The woman shrugged. â€Å"From the way she sounded? Yeah, I’d say now. Or sooner.† She shut the door. Alberta was the captain of the guardians on campus, and when she spoke, people acted. â€Å"I wonder what this is about?† asked Lissa. I stood up, hating to leave. â€Å"Any number of things, I imagine. I’ll go see her and then head back to guest housing. Not that I’ll sleep. I have no clue what time zone I’m in anymore.† Lissa gave me a parting hug, one we both had a hard time letting go of. â€Å"Good luck.† I started to turn the door’s handle and then thought of something. I slipped the silver ring off of my finger and handed it to Lissa. â€Å"Is this the ring you-oh!† She wrapped her hand around it, her face growing enraptured. â€Å"Can you feel the magic in it?† I asked. â€Å"Yeah†¦ it’s weak, but it’s in there.† She held the ring up to the light and stared at it. She probably wasn’t going to notice when I left because I had a feeling she’d be studying the ring all night. â€Å"It’s so strange. I can almost immediately feel how she did this.† â€Å"Mark said we probably had a while to go before we could do the healing they do†¦ but maybe you could figure out how to make charms while we wait?† Her jade green eyes were still on the ring. â€Å"Yeah†¦ I think I might.† I smiled at her excitement and tried to leave again, but she caught my arm. â€Å"Hey†¦ Rose†¦ I know I’ll see you tomorrow, but†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"But what?† â€Å"I just wanted to say, after everything that’s happened†¦ well, I don’t want us to ever have this kind of separation again. I mean, I know we can’t be together every single second-and that’s kind of creepy anyway-but we’re bonded for a reason. We’re meant to look out for each other and be there for each other.† Her words sent a shiver through me, like we were wrapped in powers greater than ourselves. â€Å"We will be.† â€Å"No, I mean†¦ you’re always there for me. Every time, I’m in danger, and you come rushing in to save me. Not anymore.† â€Å"You don’t want me to save you anymore?† â€Å"That’s not what I meant! I want to be there for you too, Rose. If I can throw a punch, I can do anything. Even though that really hurt.† She exhaled in frustration. â€Å"God, I’m not making any sense. Look, the point is, if you ever have to go off alone, take me with you. Don’t leave me behind.† â€Å"Liss-â€Å" â€Å"I’m serious.† Her luminous beauty burned with determination and purpose. â€Å"Whatever obstacles you have to go against, I’m going to be there for you. Don’t go alone. Swear to me that if you ever decide to take off again, you’ll bring me. We’ll do it together.† I started to protest as a million fears came to my mind. How could I risk her life? Yet looking at her, I knew she was right. For better or worse, we had a bond we couldn’t escape. Lissa was indeed tied to that piece of my soul, and we were stronger fighting together than apart. â€Å"Okay,† I said, clasping her hand. â€Å"I swear it. The next time I go do something stupid that might get me killed, you can come along.† How to cite Blood Promise Chapter Twenty-Nine, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

A Lesson Before Dying Major Works Data Sheet free essay sample

Given the title, A Lesson Before Dying, we can infer and predict that a character in the book will die. Also, we can predict that before they die, they will learn something, probably a valuable lesson Biographical Information about the author: Ernest J. Gaines was born in Oscar, Louisiana in 1933. He was born and raised on a plantation. He had six brothers and sisters and they were taken care of by his great aunt, Augusteen Jefferson. Him and his siblings were sent to labor alongside their elders in the fields. He served in the U. S. Army, but then pursued writing. Some other books that he’s written include A long Day in November, Of Love and Dust, Cathering Carmier, Bloodline, In My Father’s House, and The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. He lives now at a house that he and his wife built on land that was once part of River Lake Plantation, where he spent his childhood, and where his ancestors labored for generations. Helpful background information or information about the period of publication: Ernest J. Gaines was born in Oscar, Louisiana, so this can explain the setting of the story. The struggle would be similar in both places. Lots of things in A Lesson Before Dying reflect his own life. Gaines wasa born on a plantation (where he lived in slave cabins of former slaves), went to school in a one-room church (much like the one Grant taught at), his mother and step-father moved from the south, and the strongest adult influence was his great aunt (like Tante Lou). Plot: Exposition: We are introduced to narrator, Grant Wiggins. He is a teacher at a church that was converted into a school. The story is located outside of Bayonne, Louisiana and the characters sometimes travel to Bayonne. It is still extremely racist and even though the blacks here have some rights, there are treated unjustly. A young black man, Jefferson, is at the wrong place at the wrong time and he gets caught up in a bad situation. Rising Action: Jefferson was unjustly convicted of murder because he was at the wrong place at the wrong time. Jefferson caught a ride with two men, Brother and Bear, and they drove to the White Rabbit Bar where Brother and Bear tried to force Alcee Grope, the owner, to give them drinks, but he does not agree and it turned into a brutal shootout. The owner, Brother, and Bear all die leaving Jefferson alone. He is confused and scared of what just happened and takes some liquor to calm himself. He ends up making another bad decision and takes money out of the open cash register. As he’s about to leave, two white men walk in. He is taken to jail, goes to jury, assumed guilty, and sentenced to death. During the trial he is called a hog. Tante Lou, Miss Emma, and Grant go to Henri Pichot’s plantation and ask him if Grant would be allowed to go and speak to Jefferson. Miss Emma tries to persuade Henri because she had been a faithful worker in his household for many years, but Henri only says that he will talk to his brother-in-law, who is the sheriff of the Bayonne Jail. After this Grant goes to eat in Bayonne and his girlfriend, Vivian, shows up and they talk about the subject of Jefferson and what they want Grant to do for Jefferson. Grant becomes aware of the problem and worried that he might not be able to do what everyone wants him to, which is teach and mentor Jefferson so that he may die like a man. Grant then goes back to the plantation to work and teach the black students that live there on the plantation. He tells them about Jefferson’s situation and issue. He is summoned to Henri Pichot and Henri tells him that he may do the job, but if there is any trouble, then they will stop the visits. Him and the other fellows there (Sheriff Guidry, Louis Rougon, A heavy man) don’t think that he will be able to do anything for Jefferson. Later on, the superintendent comes to visit Grant’s school and make sure everything is going smoothly. Grant is very strict towards his students. Grant then thinks about his teacher when he was a child, Matthew Antoine, describes him to us, tells about his influence, and what they talked about. Next, Grant goes with Miss Emma to visit Jefferson in his cell, but when they talk to him, he doesn’t acknowledge that they are their and is difficult to them. During Grant’s next visit, Jefferson acts like a hog and is infatuated with the idea that he is one. Grant wants to leave town with Vivian, but there are several things holding them back. Grant and Vivian discuss the names of their future children and talk to Miss Emma and Tante Lou. The visits to the jail continue and there isn’t much progress with Jefferson. Jefferson doesn’t want to eat or talk. Grant goes to Mr. Pichot’s house and Jefferson’s execution date is set on a Friday. Another visit, Jefferson tells Grant that he wants a gallon of ice cream for dinner his last night. Grant gets him a radio to keep him company, but Reverend Ambrose, Tante Lou, and Miss Emma thing the radio is a bad thing for him. Grant also gets Jefferson a notebook and pencil so he can right down his feelings or what he’s thinking about. You start to see Grant and Jefferson start to bond and Grant leaves happy with what is happening. The next time he goes to see Jefferson, Miss Emma goes. Climax/Turning Point: Grant gives Jefferson a compassionate and heartfelt lecture/speech which causes Jefferson to start crying and it leads Grant to cry as well. Falling Action: After this, Grant goes to The Rainbow. He overhears two men talking bad about Jefferson and this gets Grant really mad. He goes over and tells them to stop talking. They get into a fight and Grant eventually gets knocked unconscious by the bartender because he wouldn’t stop fighting. He wakes up at Vivian’s place. They have a deep conversation about their relationship and there is some fighting. Reverend Ambrose talks to Grant about Jefferson needing to have God with him and ends up telling Grant that lying is a major part of life and everyone has to do it to be successful. The next visit to the jail, Grant asks Jefferson how the notebook has been going and they talk about their religious views. The next chapter is what is written in Jefferson’s journal. On the mornign of his execution, Jefferson wakes up (he really didn’t sleep) to see the sunrise and tells Paul to give the Journal to Grant for him to read. Grant has all of his students kneel from twelve to the execution, however long that may be. Resolution: Grant spreads it around that he will not be attending the execution, but but while Paul is shaving Jefferson for the electric chair, he tells them that he will be there. Jefferson gets executed and everyone can hear the electric chair go off. After the execution Paul goes to Grant’s school and gives the journal to him. Paul tells Grant how much he appreciates him and that Jefferson was the strongest person in the room at the execution. Grant walksback inside the schoolhouse and starts to cry. At the end of the story, both Jefferson and Grant learned from eachother and they had both been influenced. Significant Quotes: (Choose at least three for a short story and five for a play, epic, or novel and include page numbers. Quotes should demonstrate the range of the entire work. ) Quote: Significance: page 157: â€Å"I could not get that date and time out of my mind. How do people come up with a date and a time to take life from another man? Who made them God? † This is significant because it shows how controlling and power thirsty humans can be. They are so â€Å"powerful† that they get to decide when it is time for another human being to die. Humans can be so vicious and it is not fair or just for them to decide when a person should die. That decision should be left to God. Page 157: â€Å"Twelve white men say a black man must die, and another white man sets the date and time without consulting one black person. Justice? † This is significant because it reveals the racist community that we used to have and the separation between white’s and black’s. Grant says that it is not fair for there not to be any black representation to help make decisions because they aren’t representing the whole population. Justice is what is right, but that is definitely not. page 174: â€Å"It was the kind of â€Å"here† your mother or your big sister or your great grandmother would have said. It was the kind of â€Å"here† that let you know this was hard-earned money but, also, that you needed it more that she did, and the kind of â€Å"here† that said she wished you had it and didn’t have to borrow it from her, but since you did not have it, and she did, then â€Å"here† it was, with a kind of love. It was the kind of â€Å"here† that asked the question, When will all this end? When will a man not have to struggle to have money to get what he needs â€Å"here†? † Grant is describing the bartender giving him ten dollars for the radio he wanted to buy Jefferson. She says. Here† when she gives it to him and he took this in multiple ways. This shows the bartender’s generosity and how much she wants to help. She gives him the money because it was the right thing to do and because he needed it. Grant wonders when everyone will have enough money to support themselves and help them buy simple things such as a radio. Again, he shows his doubt in society. Also, this shows that there was not a lot of money floating around and people like blacks were not wealthy and were not given the opportunity to be. Money was a valuable thing and it is only worth giving someone you love the money. Page 191: â€Å"Do you know what a hero is, Jefferson? A hero is someone who does something for other people. He does something that other men don’t and can’t do. He is different from other men. He is above other men. No matter who those other men are, the hero, no matter who he is, is above them He would do anything for the people he loves, because he knows it would make their lives better The white people out there are saying that you don’t have it-that you’re a hog, not a man. But I know they are wrong. You have the potentials. We all have, no matter who we are. † This is significant because Grant is explaining to Jefferson how he should be acting towards his family members and friends who come to visit him. He wants Jefferson to be the hero he never had in his life, but Grant does already have heroes. Here in this conversation we see Jefferson and Grant start to bond and be friends. Grant is acting like a friend who’s giving advice, so we see their relationship. Also, this presents the racism in the community again because Grant refers to the â€Å"whites† as an enemy and different side to a social war. Page 255: â€Å"I don’t ever want to forget this day. I don’t ever want to forget him I don’t know what you’re going to say when you go back in there. But tell them he was the bravest man in that room today. I’m a witness. Grant Wiggins. Tell them so. † This shows how courageous Paul is. He knows that Jefferson changed his life and he is not ashamed to say that he will never forget him. We also learn here that Grant succeeded in turning Jefferson form a hog to a man. Paul wants Jefferson to be remembered because of how brave he was. Significant Characters Name Role in the story Significance Adjectives Grant Wiggins The main character and narrarator of the story; protagonist. Grant is the main character and the story is his opinions on life and his help for Jefferson when he is in jail. He is a school-teacher for african american children on a plantation. He is not satisfied with the community he lives in and wants to escape with his girlfriend, Vivian, but several things hold them back. He has no faith in anything or anyone (except for Vivian) and does not believe in God, heaven, or religion as a whole. Tante Lou and Miss Emma volunteer him to assist Jefferson in dying like a man, so the whole story he acts bitter toward them. Towards the end, he learns form Jefferson. doubtful (he changes from this state of mind later on in the story), intelligent Tante Lou Grant’s disabled aunt. Tante Lou is Grants guardian. She is extremely religious and always scolds Jefferson when he does something disrespectful or bad. She took Grant in when he was a child because his parents moved away. She is his motherly figure, but is not always respected. Her life revolves around the church, family, and friends. She tries to force a religion on Grant during the novel. strong/tough, religious, dedicated Jefferson a young black man who is convicted of murder. Jefferson is a bit foolish and gets cuaght and unjustly convicted of crimes. He takes it very personally that his lawyer calls him a hog and this makes it very difficult for Grant to reach him at first. Being in jail makes him bored, but he loved to listen to the radio that Grant gave him. He’s not very educated, but can write a little bit. He was supposed to be going hunting with his friend, but instead gets caught up with the murder scene. He becomes very close to Grant. sensitive, gullible, quiet, discreet (keeps to himself) Miss Emma Jefferson’s godmother; his â€Å"nannan†. Miss Emma loves Jefferson very much and never gives up hope that he will die like a man. She makes food for Jefferson and tries to always talk to him, but sometimes gets rejected and this hurts her feelings. She gets depressed that Jefferson won’t talk to her in the beginning. She is very religious and gets Grant to do things by making him feel bad and saying he doesnt have to to Tante Lou. Miss Emma is overweight and she walks slow. She doesn’t want Jefferson to die like a hog. compassionate, faithful Reverend Ambrose The reverend for the black’s in their community. Reverend Ambrose is a religious leader in the community and is not fond of Grant at all and is against him the whole story. He tries to force religion on Grant even though he does not want to believe. He wants Jefferson’s soul to be clean before he dies and does not like Grant’s tactics in helping him. He thinks Grant is a foolish young boy that is not smart in a way other than education. He believes that everyone lies to protect those they love and that is is a part of life. Hypocritical (he is a reverend and a leader in the church, but he lies), emotional, frustrated Vivian Grant’s girlfriend. Vivian is Grant’s escape during the novel and talks to him about everything. She is trying to divorce her husband and has two children. Grant and her’s relationship could jeoperdize the custody of her children. She is also a teacher and is always giving advice to Grant, who she loves. She is afraid of not being liked by Tante Lou, Miss Emma, etc and wants to please them. beautiful, considerate, clever Paul One of the deputy’s at the Bayonne jailhouse. Paul works at the jail where Jefferson is held. He tells Grant in the end that he is a witness that Jefferson was the strongest man in the room when he died. Paul understands the black struggle and is not racist. He is a friend of Jefferson and Grant generous, truthful Sheriff Guidry Head sheriff of the Bayonne prison. Sheriff Guidry is a very racist man even though he holds a pretty high position. He is a very stong enforcer of rules and believes that Grant coming to Jefferson will not do anything and that he should just die like a hog. He feels superior to everyone in town, but is very low because of his attitude and bossiness. Discriminatory, self-indulged Setting: (In the first column, please list and describe at least three examples. In the second comment on the significance of each setting. ) The Jailhouse The jailhouse is where Jefferson is kept for his â€Å"crime†. Grant comes here for his visits and goes to his cell. Sometimes Miss Emma, Tante Lou, or Reverend Ambrose would come with them and they would have meals and try to talk to Jefferson. This is where the transformation of Jefferson from a hog to a man occurs because of Grant. The Rainbow (bar/restaurant) The Rainbow is significant because Grant and Vivian come here a lot to meet up, eat, and discuss issues or ideas. Also, Grant likes to come here to eat and think about what is going on with his life. One time in here he overhears two men talking bad about Jefferson. He picks a fight with them and then the bartender knocks him out. the schoolhouse (was converted into a schoolhouse from a church) This is where Jefferson teaches. It is important because his whole life revolves around this place because it is his job. This is part of the reason that he doesn’t move away from Bayonne. He teaches all of the young black students here. Page 2 Significance of the opening scene: The opening scene is significant because it introduces what the novel is concentrated around (Jefferson’s conviction). This is focused on in the very beginning of the story and we learn how, when, where, why, and who form Grant about Jefferson’s conviction. Also, the novel revolves around Jefferson’s life and troubles, so it is important that this opening scene was included. Significance of the closing scene: The closing scene is significant because it is when Jefferson and Grant get close to each other. We learn more about Jefferson because he starts to talk more and we learn by the time that Jefferson is executed that he died as a man which is what Miss Emma wanted Grant to accomplish in the beginning. We find out the goal was achieved. Also, we learn that not only did Jefferson learn something, but Grant as well was taught something. Significant Literary Elements (These should either be â€Å"focus† terms that Mr. Hodge wants me to notice, or terms that contribute to the themes of the work. Please list, provide an example, and explain the significance of three from a short story and five from a novel, epic, or play. Element/Term: Example with page #: Significance: Idiom page 68: â€Å"I could feel both sets of eyes on the back of my neck. † This is an idiom because you can’t literally feel someone’s eyes on the back of your neck. This is just to say that they were staring your down. This is significant because it introduces how Tante Lou and Miss Emma act towards Grant and how they feel about him. Simile page 31: â€Å"He said it would be like tying a hog down into that chair and executing himan animal that didn’t know what any of it was all about. † This is a simile because he is comparing Jefferson to a hog. It is significant becuase they are caling him a creature that doesnt have any control and is dirty. Jefferson takes this personally and this is what makes him so difficult to talk to in the beginning, but by the end he proves lots of people wrong. Imagery page 252: â€Å"I probably would not have noticed it at all had a butterfly, a yellow butterfly with dark specks like ink dots on its wings, not lit there the way it opened its wings and closed them, the way it opened its wings again, fluttered I watched it fly over the ditch and down into the quarter † This is imagery because he describes the whole butterlfy. He describes what its doing, what its pattern is, what color it is, and how graceful it looks. It crosses Grant’s path, but has no apparent reason to be there. There is no scent or anything else drawing it to that place. Grant believes that it is a sign that the execution is over and the butterfly represents Jefferson’s soul leaving his body and going to a different place. dialect page 54: â€Å"Yazir (yes sir) Want me go stand outside and s’lute flag? † This is dialect because it shows how the southerm, uneducated, young black children talked when they had little education. This boy pronounces words differently and does not have what a complete sentence needs. This is the difference between the way we talked and how boys like this who were born and raised on a plantation. People are truly a product of the people around them and this boy probably learned to speak this way because of them. Rhetorical Question page 31: â€Å"Am I suppposed to tell someone how to die who has never lived? Suppose I was allowed to visit him, and suppose I reached him and realize that he was as much a man as any other man; then what? So what will I have accomplished? Why not let the hog die without knowing anything? † this is a rhetorical question because Grant is talking to Vivian and asking questions, but is not expecting a response. This is where the cynical tone shows through in Grant. He does not believe that helping Jefferson will be worthwhile and is doubtful in the whole process. He does not expect to accomplish anything by doing this. He also makes a reference to Jefferson with the hog. This shows the dynamic character of Grant because of how he treats Jefferson in the end. Themes (Please list one theme for a short story and at least three for a novel, epic, or play. Remember that themes must be complete sentences and must be â€Å"universal†. ) You cannot change what happens in the past, but you can grow from it. Don’t give up on what you believe in. Life is sometimes unfair and may be difficult to go through. Tone (In the first column, identify the tone of the piece. In the second column, justify that choice with an example. ) Tone: Cynical Justification: A Lesson Before Dying is cynical because Grant is always questioning the goodness of the people around him. Cynical means that you are doubtful to whether something will happen or whether it will be worthwhile or not. He distrusts humans sincerity and goodness. Grant is skeptical, doubtful, distrustful, suspicious, and disbelieving of his task and of his racist community which supports the cynical tone. Does the tone ever shift or change? If so, describe the new tone and tell where that shift occurs. Tone Shift: confident/optimistic Shift occurs: At the end of the story when Jefferson dies like a man, not a hog, the tone becomes confident/optimistic. Although it is sad that Jefferson dies, Everyone keeps they’re head held high for him. Grant is proud of Jefferson and is optimistic about change for the racist, segregated community in the future. Essential Question: (In the first space, write down the essential question for the selection. In the following, explain how the story answers the essential question. Be specific. ) Question: How would the story be different if Jefferson went hunting with Gable instead of going to the White Rabbit Bar with Brother and Bear? Response: Jefferson would not have gotten blamed for the three murders and he would not have had the chance to take the money out of the cash register or take some liquor. That day would just have been a day of fun instead of a nightmare. Jefferson’s life depended on this. The story would have been over in two chapters and they would have no one to blame that was still alive for the muders, there would be no execution, but most of all, Grant and all of the others would not have been the chance to change their lives. They would not be nfluenced like they were. Miscellaneous: 1. This book was written in first person (from the point of view of Grant Wiggins) and is written in past tense. 2. dynamic characters: Grant, Jefferson 3. Ernest J. Gaines was born in 1933, but this book was published in 1993, so this book was based on past things. 4. Gaines great aunt in real life has the last name Jefferson, which could have been used for the character Jefferson in this book